Pioneer Life In Upper Canada

Origins of Early Settlers - Details

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When and Why They Came

People of African descent America 
(United States)
1628-1793; as slaves of other settlers
(slavery ended in Upper Canada in 1793)
1700s - 1800s; as refugees avoiding slavery and racial oppression
1783-1790s; as "Loyalists"
1790-1870; as run-away slaves (in 1830, the network of people that brought them to Upper Canada was named the "Underground Railroad")
"Americans" America
(United States)
1749-1812; as "Loyalists" - many different backgrounds, religions and occupations - First Nations people also in this group
1790s-1812; for available land and economic opportunity
Amish Pennsylvania, America 1820's; for land and to avoid religious and political conflict (originally arrived in America in 1720s from Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Netherlands)
English England
(Great Britain)
before 1830; mostly military or government officials
1830-1850s; leaving economic hardship
(1842; 40,684 English in Upper Canada
  1851; 82,699 English in Upper Canada)
Germans Germany late 1700s; as "Loyalists"
; cities and industries expanding and farming becoming less important
Mennonites Europe and America 1786-1825; from Pennsylvania as "Loyalists"
1825-1874; from Russia and Pennsylvania; for cheaper and better farm land
Scottish Scotland before 1815; 15 000 came to Upper Canada
1815-1870; 170 000 to Upper Canada; leaving economic hardship and general "unrest"
Source;  Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, Ed. Paul Robert Magosci, University of Toronto Press, 1999


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